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Today, disagreement over the validity of EU rules with EU borders is widely used in political science as a definition of differentiated integration. With this in mind, the first sectoral agreements concluded by EFTA members at the time with the EEC were examples of differentiated integration. Although the primacy of the EEC provisions has been informal and the scope of the agreements has been limited, the provisions of the EEC have been adopted at this stage beyond the EEC`s borders. On 22 December 2016, Switzerland and the EU reached an agreement under which a new Swiss law (in response to the referendum) would require Swiss employers to hire job seekers (Swiss nationals or not registered in Swiss employment agencies) while observing the free movement of EU citizens to Switzerland so that they can work there. [15] The EEA agreement was found to be unsatisfactory by some EFTA states. They were particularly concerned about their lack of voting rights in the EU policy process on EU policies. As a result, all but Iceland and Liechtenstein have decided to apply for EU membership. However, plans to integrate EFTA governments have been blocked by referendums in Switzerland and Norway. In Switzerland, the EEA agreement was rejected on 6 December 1992. In Norway, Parliament ratified the EEA agreement in 1992, but two years later voters refused to join the European Union (EU). In contrast, Finland, Sweden and Austria joined the EU on 1 January 1995.

When a state joins the EU, it does not necessarily immediately become a member of the EEA, but must apply. [32] Following the enlargement of the European UNION in 2007, to which Bulgaria and Romania joined on 1 January 2007, an EEA enlargement agreement was not signed until 25 July 2007 and did not enter into force provisionally until 1 August 2007. [33] [34] [25] The agreement did not enter into full force until November 9, 2011. [25] On the other hand, the EEA agreement was provisionally applied to the ten candidate countries in May 2004, from their accession to the EU. [35] In the area of foreign and security policy, Switzerland and the EU do not have comprehensive agreements. But in its 2000 Security Report, the Federal Council announced the importance of contributing to stability and peace beyond Switzerland`s borders and building an international community of values. Switzerland then began cooperating on projects under the EU`s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). Switzerland has brought personnel or equipment to EU peacekeeping and security missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kosovo, Macedonia and Aceh in Indonesia. Negotiations on the EEA agreement confirmed the EU`s desire to cooperate with third countries on the basis of the acquis. In addition, the EU has not been content with the traditional rules of international law, but has called for strict enforcement mechanisms to ensure the integrity of EU law. The EEA is therefore a clear example of differentiated external integration that extends the validity of EU legislation to third countries and ensures equal means for the application and judicial control within the EU and EFTA pillars.