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For a property to be a necessary condition, it must always be present when the effect is present. Since this is the case, we are interested in examining cases where the effect is present and to learning about the characteristics that exist and are absent under the “possible necessary conditions.” Obviously, the properties missing if the effect is present cannot be necessary conditions for effect. This method is also generally described in comparative policy as the most diverse conception of the system. Symbolically, the method of concordance can be presented as: according to the residue method, if we have a number of factors that are considered to be the causes of a number of effects, and we have reason to believe that all factors, with the exception of a factor C, are causes of all but one effect, then we should conclude that C is the cause of the residual effect. Mills methods should not come as a surprise, as these rules articulate some of the principles we use implicitly in causal reasoning in everyday life. But it is important to respect the limits of these rules. Perhaps the best way to introduce Mills` methods is an example. Suppose your family went to a buffet dinner together, but when you got home, you started to feel sick and feel stomach pains. How do you determine the cause of the disease? Suppose you create a table of the foods taken by each member of the family: in this particular case, you are the only one who is not sick. The only difference between you and the others is that you didn`t make a salad. It`s probably the cause of other people`s illnesses. It is an application of the method of difference. This rule says that if you have a situation that leads to an effect, and another that does not, and the only difference is the presence of only one factor in the first situation, we can infer that factor as the cause of the effect.

Unlike the four previous inductive methods, the method of accompanying variation does not involve the elimination of any circumstances. The change in size of one factor causes another factor to change in size. Mills` methods can only reveal evidence of probable causes; they don`t really offer an explanation. The discovery of causalities is an important step towards understanding the world, but it is only part of what we need. We also need to understand how and why some cases of causation work the way they do. The answers to these questions lead us to the possibility of identifying cause-and-effect relationships. We need to develop theories and hypotheses that underpin the scientific argument. Symbolically, the variation method can be represented as (with ± represents displacement): also simply called “common method,” this principle simply represents the application of methods of concordance and difference.