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While the SSA is focused on easing the cross-border complexity of social security, there are still some issues and challenges that require special attention to maximize the benefits of these bilateral agreements. Because different ASSs have different conditions and requirements, the conditions of each ASA must be carefully reviewed in order to obtain maximum benefits. Prime Minister Narendra Modi spoke of the need for the totalization agreement, while Foreign Minister Harsh Vardhan Shringla said that the two issues relating to the H-1B visa, which has a direct impact on the IT sector, and totalization agreements with the US authorities were addressed. Although there are a number of practical challenges, the PF authorities have consistently clarified the way in support of the successful implementation of the SSA. The increasing coverage of countries under bilateral agreements, combined with good implementation, brings considerable benefits to the mobile population with its employers and is therefore a step in the right direction. While cross-border issues have arisen in the areas of taxation, immigration and social security in recent times, social security issues are also becoming more important, as they concern the pension benefits of individuals who, across borders, venture for employment. “In the absence of a SSA with the U.S., Indian employees face a difficult time, as billions of dollars of their revenues are invested in it. On the other hand, American workers in India do not suffer because compulsory social security in India is too low for an American worker,” said Shankar Agarwal, former union secretary of the Union. During this period, India signed and commissioned 18 SSAs with other countries.

As a general rule, benefits such as replacement, pension exportability, total benefits and withdrawal of social security benefits are available under this SSA. SSA is a bilateral agreement between India and a foreign country, which aims to protect the interests of border workers. The agreement provides for the avoidance of “double coverage” and guarantees equal treatment of workers in both countries from a social security perspective. “I told President (US) Trump that the contribution of our Social Security experts should be discussed further as part of a totalization agreement. It will be of mutual interest to both of us,” Narendra Modi told reporters in New Delhi with Trump. As part of the secondment or abolition of the dual contribution, workers who have moved to a SSA country are exempt from social security in the host country for a certain period of time (specific to each SSA), provided that they continue to pay social security contributions in their home country.